明治大学 政治経済学部 ２０１８年度 第１問 単語
I had a friend who tried hard to (1)remember more of her dreams. She’d (2)write them down and then tell people about them. She stopped, though, because it started (3)interfering with her social life. She’d start talking about her dreams and people would leave the room.
There are two (4)major theories about why we dream. The first is the “activation-synthesis theory,” which (5)holds that dreams are (6)interpretations by our (7)forebrains of (8)essentially random activity from the (9)spinal cord and (10)cerebellum during sleep, (11)especially (12)REM sleep.
Part of the explanation for why dreams can be so (13)weird is that they are interpreted from (14)confusing information. The (15)evolutionarily older parts of our brains are also the (16)seat of our basic emotions. (17)According to this theory, the emotion comes first and dreams are made to (18)make sense of the emotion. (19)Evidence of this comes from scene-changes that happen: when we have (20)anxiety dreams, for example, they often (21)switch from one anxious situation to a different one ― so (22)rather than us feeling anxious because of the (23)content of our dreams, it could be that our feeling is causing an anxious (24)narrative in the dream!
The other major theory of dreaming is the “threat-simulation theory,” which holds that the evolutionary function of dreaming is for us to practice how to (25)behave in (26)threatening situations. There’s a lot of evidence for this theory too.
First, most dream emotion is (27)negative. People (28)tend to dream of (29)ancestral threats: falling, being chased, (30)natural disasters, and so on. These frightening (31)elements are (32)over-represented in dreams ― (33)that is, we see them in dreams much more than our experience in our day-to-day world would (34)predict. Lots of people dream of being chased by animals, but how often does this actually happen to people? The over-representation of animals chasing us in dreams, especially for children, suggests that we have some (35)innate fear of them. (36)In contrast, we don’t dream of modern threats, such as (37)heart attacks, as much as you’d expect if dreams (38)were based on the problems we actually (39)face in today’s world.
These two theories of dreaming are presented as (40)competing, but (41)as far as I can tell they are (42)compatible ― taht is, even if dreams are interpretations of (43)chaotic input from the spinal cord, there is still a theory needed to describe how chaotic input is made into narratives that we experience as dreams, and it’s quite possible that the mind (44)takes advantage of this (45)opportunity to practice (46)dealing with dangerous things.
If, as threat-simulation theory argues, dreams help us to deal with dangerous situations, perhaps discussing our dreams also helps us to deal with these threats. (47)After all, “(48)two heads are better than one.” We like to talk about dreams to help us prepare for how to act in dangerous situations in the future.
Which leads us to why we find our own dreams so interesting. There are three reasons based on known (49)psychological effects, though all of them are (50)hypothetical (51)in terms of my (52)application of them to dreams.
The first is negativity (53)bias, which makes us pay attention to dangerous things. Because most dreams are negative (support for the threat-simulation theory), our bias (54)in favor of negative information makes them feel important.
The second reason (55)has to do with the emotional bias of dreaming. Many dreams are so emotional that they feel important. However, people hearing about someone else’s dream, not feeling that emotion, might find the experience of the dream hard to relate to. (56)Once I dreamed of a terrifying (57)staircase. When I told my girlfriend about it, she (58)laughed at me for being (59)scared of such a (60)harmless thing. In the dream it was scary, but clearly my audience couldn’t (61)appreciate that.
We tend to think of dreams as being really weird, but in truth about 80 percent of dreams (62)depict (63)ordinary situations. We’re just more (64)likely to remember and talk about the strange ones. Information we don’t understand can often (65)rouse our (66)curiosity, particularly (67)in the presence of strong emotion. The emotional (68)pull of dreams makes even the strangest (69)contradictions seem (70)meaningful and (71)worthy of discussion and interpretation.
These reasons are why most of your dreams are going to seem pretty (72)boring to most people.
But if you’re going to talk about some of your dreams, pick the ones in which you deal with a problem in some new way. The fact that you are dealing with a problem would make them more interesting than your happy dreams, and if you feel you learned something about how to deal with a threat, maybe your audience will too.
- remember 〔動詞〕思い出す、覚えている
- write A down 〔熟語〕Aを書き留める
- interfere with~ 〔熟語〕～に干渉する、～の邪魔をする
- major 〔形容詞〕主な、主要な
- hold★ 〔動詞〕考える、主張する
- interpretation 〔名詞〕解釈、説明
- forebrain▲ 〔名詞〕前脳
- essentially 〔副詞〕本質的に、基本的に
- spinal cord▲ 〔熟語〕脊髄
- cerebellum▲ 〔名詞〕小脳
- especially 〔副詞〕特に
- REM sleep 〔熟語〕レム睡眠
- weird 〔形容詞〕奇妙な
- confusing 〔形容詞〕混乱した、こんがらがった
- evolutionarily 〔副詞〕進化として、進化論的に
- seat 〔名詞〕所在地、座席
- according to~ 〔熟語〕～によると
- make sense of~★ 〔熟語〕～を理解する、つじつまを合わせる
- evidence 〔名詞〕証拠
- anxiety 〔名詞〕不安、心配
- switch 〔動詞〕切り替える（switch from A to Bで『AからBに切り替える』）
- rather than~ 〔熟語〕～というよりむしろ
- content 〔名詞〕中身、内容
- narrative★ 〔名詞〕物語、語ること
- behave 〔動詞〕振る舞う、正しく行動する
- threatening situation 〔熟語〕恐ろしい状況、危機的な状況（threaten:脅す、危険にさらす）
- negative 〔形容詞〕悪い、負の
- tend to~ 〔熟語〕〜する傾向にある
- ancestral 〔形容詞〕先祖から受け継いだ
- natural disaster 〔熟語〕自然災害
- element 〔名詞〕要素
- over-represented 〔形容詞〕表れすぎる、描かれすぎる（represent:表す、描く）
- that is★ 〔熟語〕つまり
- predict 〔動詞〕予言する、予測する
- innate★ 〔形容詞〕生まれつき備わっている、生来の
- in contrast 〔熟語〕対照的に
- heart attack 〔熟語〕心臓発作
- be based on~ 〔熟語〕～に基づいている
- face 〔動詞〕直面する、向かい合う
- competing★ 〔形容詞〕（主張などが）相入れない、相反する
- as far as I can tell 〔熟語〕私に分かる限りでは（tell:分かる）
- compatible★ 〔形容詞〕両立できる、矛盾しない（⇔competing）
- chaotic 〔形容詞〕カオスの、まとまりのない
- take advantage of~★ 〔熟語〕～の機会を利用する、～に付け込む
- opportunity 〔名詞〕機会
- deal with~ 〔熟語〕～に対処する、解決する
- after all 〔熟語〕結局、何しろ～なのだから
- two heads are better than one 〔ことわざ〕２人の頭脳は１人に勝る（３人寄れば文殊の知恵）
- psychological 〔形容詞〕心理学の、心理の
- hypothetical 〔形容詞〕仮説の、仮定の
- in terms of~★ 〔熟語〕～という観点から
- application 〔名詞〕応用、利用
- bias 〔名詞〕偏見、悪い先入観
- in favor of~★ 〔熟語〕～に賛成の、～に有利に働く
- have to do with~★ 〔熟語〕～と関係がある
- once 〔副詞〕かつて
- staircase 〔名詞〕階段
- laugh 〔動詞〕笑う
- scare 〔動詞〕怖がらせる（be scared:怖がる）
- harmless 〔形容詞〕害のない、無邪気な
- appreciate 〔動詞〕正しく認識する（『感謝する』という意味にも注意！）
- depict 〔動詞〕表現する、描写する
- ordinary 〔形容詞〕普通の
- likely 〔形容詞〕起こる可能性が高い（be likely to~:～する可能性が高い）
- rouse 〔動詞〕刺激する、引き起こす
- curiosity 〔名詞〕好奇心
- in the presence of~ 〔熟語〕～の存在するところでは
- pull 〔名詞〕引き付ける力、魅力
- contradiction 〔名詞〕矛盾
- meaningful 〔形容詞〕意味深い、意味ありげな
- worthy (of A) 〔形容詞〕Aの価値がある
- boring 〔形容詞〕退屈な
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