センター本試験 2009年度 第6問 単語

/ 5月 1, 2018/ 単語★★★ ~センターレベル~, 難易度★★★, センター試験/ 0 comments

 

センター単語は基本的なものだと言われますが、それほど簡単ではありません。単語の意味を想像しながら読むのは大切ですが、一文の中にいくつも知らない単語があっては想像も何もあったものではありません。わからない単語は長文1つあたり5個程度までにしないと、高得点は望めないでしょう。

この記事は2009年のセンター本試験の第6問(最後の長文読解)の単語をまとめました。単語を丸暗記するのではなく、文中で実際にどのように使われているかに注意しましょう。

 

【問題】 下線部の単語について、文中での意味を答えなさい。

(1) When I first entered university, my aunt, who is a professional (1)translator, gave me a new English dictionary. I was (2)puzzled to see that it was a (3)monolingual dictionary, which meant that everything was in English. (4)Although it was a dictionary (5)intended for learners, none of my classmates had one and, (6)to be honest, I found it (7)extremely difficult to use (8)at first. I would (9)look up words in the dictionary and still not (10)fully understand the meanings. I (11)was used to the (12)familiar bilingual dictionaries, in which the (13)entries are in English and their (14)equivalents are given in Japanese. I really wondered why my aunt decided to make things so difficult for me. Now, after studying English at university for three years, I understand that monolingual dictionaries (15)play a crucial role in learning a foreign language.

(2) When I started to learn English at the age of ten, I wanted to (16)pick up as much basic vocabulary as possible and created (17)what might be called a simple bilingual “dictionary” for myself. This (18)consisted of English words and their equivalents in Japanese written on cards. I would put the English word on one side of a card and the Japanese equivalent on the other. I found this to be a convenient tool for (19)memorizing basic everyday words.

(3) In high school I was (20)assigned longer (21)texts which had a larger vocabulary, so I started to use a standard English-Japanese bilingual dictionary. Such dictionaries (22)contain (23)a large number of (24)commonly used English words. Each (25)item comes with a pronunciation guide, its equivalents in Japanese, a (26)note on its (27)grammatical (28)functions, and (29)examples of how it is used.

(4) For (30)those working as professional translators and (31)interpreters, there are more (32)specialized bilingual dictionaries. My aunt often translates (33)articles (34)submitted to international (35)medical journals, so she uses a bilingual dictionary (36)devoted to (37)medicine. Such dictionaries, (38)available in various (39)fields, (40)tend to (41)omit words like “come” or “go” used in an everyday scene; (42)on the other hand, they contain highly specialized (43)terms not found in standard bilingual dictionaries. For example, in a bilingual medical dictionary, one can find a term like “(44)basal body temperature,” which is unfamiliar to most people - an (45)expression (46)referring to the temperature when the body is (47)at rest.

(5) Then, if bilingual dictionaries are so (48)useful, why did my aunt give me a monolingual dictionary? As I found out, there is, in fact, often no perfect equivalence between words in one language and those in another. My aunt (49)even goes so far as to claim that a Japanese “equivalent” can never give you the real meaning of a word in English! (50)Therefore she (51)insisted that I read the (52)definition of word in a monolingual dictionary when I wanted to (53)obtain a better understanding of its meaning. (54)Gradually, I have come to see what she meant.

(6) Using a monolingual dictionary for learners has (55)benefited me in another important way ― my (56)passive vocabulary (words I can understand) has (57)increasingly become an active vocabulary (words I actually use). This dictionary uses a limited number of words, around 2,000, in its definitions. When I read these definitions, I am repeatedly (58)exposed to basic words and how they are used to (59)explain (60)objects and (61)concepts. Because of this, I can express myself more easily in English.

(7) Once I (62)got used to the monolingual dictionary for learners, I discovered another kind of monolingual dictionary, which is (63)particularly useful when writing (64)essays or (65)preparing (66)presentations. This is what can be called a “find-the-right-word” dictionary. This kind of dictionary (67)enables me to (68)come up with an (69)alternative, and sometimes more (70)precise, expression for a word I am already familiar with. For example, if I look up “difficult,” I will find a group of (71)related terms such as “challenging,” “tough,” “hard,” and “demanding.” A word like “important” will lead me to “significant,” “crucial,” “essential,” “influential,” and “major.”

(8) What I realize now is that both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries have (72)particular uses, and your choice of dictionary (73)depends on your (74)aims. If you wish to understand the (75)general meaning of texts in a foreign language and have no need to express your own ideas in the language, you may find a bilingual dictionary (76)sufficient. If you work as a professional translator, you will find it necessary to use specialized bilingual dictionaries. However, if your (77)ultimate goals are to understand a foreign language clearly and to speak or write the language using a variety of words, I strongly (78)recommend that you obtain a monolingual dictionary (79)once you (80)have command of a basic vocabulary. I feel I (81)owe the progress I have made in English to the (82)wisdom of my aunt.

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単語は英語の基本です。ですが、単語帳で1800とか2000個の単語を丸暗記で詰め込んでも、意外と長文は読めないものです。

単語の丸暗記はすぐに忘れてしまいますし、単語の色々な意味の中から、文脈に沿った意味・訳をひっぱってこれないんですよね。単語帳の勉強と、長文の勉強は必ず平行して進めてください。

 

【解答】

  1. translator 〔名詞〕翻訳家
  2. puzzle 〔動詞〕困惑させる、(be puzzledで)困惑する
  3. monolingual★ 〔形容詞〕一カ国語の(monoは1という意味)
  4. although 〔接続詞〕~だが
  5. intend 〔動詞〕意図する、(be intended for~で)~のために作られている
  6. to be honest 〔熟語〕正直に言って
  7. extremely 〔副詞〕極端に
  8. at first 〔熟語〕最初は
  9. look up★ 〔熟語〕(辞書を)ひく、(辞書で)調べる
  10. fully 〔副詞〕完全に
  11. be used to A 〔熟語〕慣れている(*Aは名詞か動名詞であることに注意!)
  12. familiar 〔形容詞〕一般的な、よくある
  13. entry★ 〔名詞〕項目、見出し語
  14. equivalent★ 〔名詞〕相当するもの、訳語
  15. play a crucial role 〔熟語〕大切な役割を果たす
  16. pick up 〔熟語〕選び出す
  17. what might be called~★ 〔熟語〕~とでも呼ぶべきもの、(what is calledで)いわゆる
  18. A consist of B★ 〔熟語〕AはBから成り立っている
  19. memorize 〔動詞〕暗記する
  20. assign★ 〔動詞〕(宿題として)課す
  21. text★ 〔名詞〕文章、本文、原文
  22. contain 〔動詞〕含む、(辞書に)載っている
  23. a large number of 〔熟語〕たくさんの
  24. commonly 〔副詞〕一般的な
  25. item 〔名詞〕項目
  26. note★ 〔名詞〕注釈、解説
  27. grammatical 〔形容詞〕文法上の
  28. function 〔名詞〕機能
  29. example 〔名詞〕例
  30. those 〔名詞〕人々
  31. interpreter★ 〔名詞〕通訳(translatorは書き言葉での翻訳、interpreterはその場での話し言葉の通訳)
  32. specialized 〔形容詞〕専門的な
  33. article 〔名詞〕記事
  34. submit 〔動詞〕提出する
  35. medical journal 〔名詞〕医学誌
  36. devoted to~ 〔熟語〕~を専門に取り扱っている
  37. medicine★ 〔名詞〕医学
  38. available★ 〔形容詞〕手に入る、利用できる
  39. field 〔名詞〕分野
  40. tend to~ 〔熟語〕~する傾向がある
  41. omit★ 〔動詞〕省く
  42. on the other hand 〔熟語〕一方で
  43. term 〔名詞〕用語
  44. basal body temperature▲ 〔熟語〕基礎体温
  45. expression 〔名詞〕表現
  46. refer to~ 〔熟語〕~について言及する、~を示す
  47. at rest 〔熟語〕休息して、活動を止めて
  48. useful 〔形容詞〕役に立つ、有益である
  49. even go so far as to~ 〔熟語〕~する所までいく、ついに~までしてしまう
  50. therefore 〔副詞〕従って
  51. insist 〔動詞〕強く主張する
  52. definition 〔名詞〕定義
  53. obtain 〔動詞〕得る、入手する
  54. gradually 〔副詞〕徐々に
  55. benefit 〔動詞〕利益を与える
  56. passive 〔形容詞〕受動的な、受け身の
  57. increasingly 〔副詞〕だんだんと
  58. be exposed to~ 〔熟語〕~にさらされる、~によく出会う
  59. explain 〔動詞〕説明する
  60. object 〔名詞〕もの
  61. concept 〔名詞〕概念、考え
  62. get used to A 〔熟語〕Aに慣れる(Aは名詞か動名詞)、be used to AはAに慣れている
  63. particularly 〔副詞〕特に
  64. essay 〔名詞〕随筆
  65. prepare 〔動詞〕準備する
  66. presentation 〔名詞〕プレゼン
  67. enable A to do 〔熟語〕Aがdoすることを可能にする
  68. come up with★ 〔熟語〕思いつく、見つける
  69. alternative★ 〔形容詞〕別の、代わりの
  70. precise 〔形容詞〕正確な
  71. related 〔形容詞〕関係のある
  72. particular 〔形容詞〕特定の、それぞれの
  73. depend on A 〔熟語〕~次第である
  74. aim 〔名詞〕目的、ねらい
  75. general 〔形容詞〕一般的な
  76. sufficient 〔形容詞〕十分である
  77. ultimate 〔形容詞〕究極的な、最終的な
  78. recommend 〔動詞〕勧める
  79. once 〔接続詞〕いったん~したら
  80. have command of basic vocabulary★ 〔熟語〕基本的な語彙が操れるようになる、(commandは自由に使える能力という意味)
  81. owe A 〔動詞〕Aに関して借りがある
  82. wisdom 〔名詞〕知恵

*★マークは変わった意味で使われているなど、注意すべき単語です。
*▲マークはセンターレベルとしては少し難しい単語です。
*各単語の品詞と意味は文中で使われているものです。

この回のセンター試験問題へ

センター単語の一覧へ

*誤字やリンク抜けや質問などは、コメント欄かryujutanakake@yahoo.co.jpまでお気軽に。

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