福島県立医科大学 2017年度 第1問 単語

/ 5月 5, 2018/ 難易度★★★★, 単語, 医学部/ 0 comments

 

単語の意味を想像しながら読むのは大切ですが、一文の中にいくつも知らない単語があっては想像も何もあったものではありません。わからない単語は長文1つあたり5個程度までにしないと、高得点は望めないでしょう。

この記事は2017年の福島県立医大の第1問の単語をまとめました。医学部らしい単語がたくさん出ていますね。単語を丸暗記するのではなく、文中で実際にどのように使われているかに注意しましょう。

 

【問題】

Most people know Watson as (1)IBM’s answer to Jeopardy star Ken Jennings. But IBM’s (2)ambitions for its (3)artificially intelligent supercomputer are now less quiz show champion and more medical genius.
Watson, the supercomputer that is now the world Jeopardy champion, basically went to medical school after it won Jeopardy. MIT’s Andrew McAfee, (4)coauthor of The Second Machine Age, said recently in an interview with Small Planet, “I’m (5)convinced that if it’s not already the world’s best (6)diagnostician, it will be soon.”
Watson is already capable of (7)storing far more medical information than doctors, and unlike humans, its decisions are all (8)evidence-based and (9)free of (10)cognitive biases and (11)overconfidence. It’s also capable of understanding (12)natural language, (13)generating (14)hypotheses, (15)evaluating the strength of those hypotheses, and learning ー not just storing data, but finding meaning in it.
As IBM scientists continue to (16)train Watson to (17)apply its vast stores of knowledge to actual medical decision-making, it’s likely just a matter of time before its (18)diagnostic (19)performance (20)surpasses that of even the sharpest doctors.
Back in 2011, McAfee wrote on his blog about why a diagnosis from “Dr.Watson” would be a (21)game changer:
(A) It covers all (22)available medical knowledge. Human doctors (23)can’t possibly hold this much information in their heads, or (24)keep up with it as it changes over time. Dr.Watson knows it all and never (25)overlooks or forgets anything.
(B) It’s accurate. If Dr.Watson is as good at medical questions as the current Watson is at game show questions, it will be an excellent diagnostician indeed.
(C) It’s (26)consistent. Given the same inputs, Dr.Watson will always output the same diagnosis. (27)Inconsistency is a surprisingly large and common mistake among human medical professionals, even (28)experienced ones. And Dr.Watson is always available and never annoyed, sick, nervous, (29)hungover, (30)upset, (31)sleep-deprived, or so on.
(D) It has very low (32)running costs. It’ll be very expensive to build and train Dr.Watson, but once it’s up and running, the cost of doing one more diagnosis with it is (33)essentially zero, (34)unless it orders test.
(E) It can (35)be offered anywhere in the world. If a person (36)has access to a computer or mobile phone, Dr.Watson is (37)on call for them.
Watson has read dozens of textbooks, all of PubMed and Medline (two (38)massive databases of medical journals), and thousands of patient records from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. (39)Altogether, “Watson has analyzed 605,000 pieces of medical evidence, 2 million pages of text, 25,000 training cases and had the assistance of 14,700 (40)clinician hours (41)fine-tuning its decision accuracy,” Forbes reported in 2013.
And it’s getting “smarter” every year. So how would Dr.Watson work (42)in practice? Here’s how IBM describes the process:
First, the (43)physician might describe (44)symptoms and other (45)related factors to the system. Watson can then (46)identify the key pieces of information and analyze the patient’s data to find (47)relevant facts about family medical history, current (48)medications and other existing conditions. It combines this information with (49)current findings from tests, and then forms and tests hypotheses by examining a variety of data sources. From here, Watson can provide potential (50)treatment options.
The supercomputer’s potential is huge, but ー as The Wall Street Journal reported earlier this year ― currently “just (51)a handful of customers are using Watson in their daily business,” and it’s far from performing at the level and in the range of domains that should be possible in the future.
(52)So far, IBM’s most (53)high-profile AI (Artificial Intelligence) partnerships are with MD Anderson Cancer Center, where Watson helps recommend (54)leukemia treatments, and WellPoint, where Watson helps the (55)insurer evaluate doctors’ treatment plans. WellPoint claims that the system is already significantly better than human doctors at diagnosing (56)lung cancer.
Watson is not yet able to use all the information it has absorbed, so it still has a long way to go before it (57)catches up with our best human diagnosticians, whose (58)versatility and (59)agility are difficult to (60)match. But Watson’s ability to learn, analyze, and apply knowledge suggests that it will (61)get there(62)eventually.
(Bisiness Insider, April 22, 2014, modified)

 

単語は英語の基本です。ですが、単語帳で1800とか2000個の単語を丸暗記で詰め込んでも、意外と長文は読めないものです。

単語の丸暗記はすぐに忘れてしまいますし、単語の色々な意味の中から、文脈に沿った意味・訳をひっぱってこれないんですよね。単語帳の勉強と、長文の勉強は必ず平行して進めてください。

 

【解答】

  1. IBM 〔名詞〕アメリカのコンピューター関連企業(固有名詞も常識の範囲は覚えること。企業名ならTwitterやFacebookなどは頻出。)
  2. ambition 〔名詞〕野望
  3. artificially intelligent★ 〔熟語〕AIの、人工知能の
  4. coauthor 〔名詞〕共著者
  5. convince 〔動詞〕確信させる、(be convincedで)確信している
  6. diagnostician 〔名詞〕診断医
  7. store 〔動詞〕保存する、蓄える
  8. evidence-based 〔熟語〕証拠に基づいた
  9. free of~★ 〔熟語〕~がない、~が免除されている
  10. cognitive bias★ 〔熟語〕認識の誤り、認知バイアス
  11. overconfidence 〔名詞〕自信過剰
  12. natural language★ 〔熟語〕自然言語(⇔人工言語)
  13. generate 〔動詞〕生み出す
  14. hypothesis★ 〔名詞〕仮説(複数形はhypotheses)
  15. evaluate 〔動詞〕評価する、診断する
  16. train 〔動詞〕トレーニングする、鍛える
  17. apply A to B★ 〔熟語〕AをBに適用する
  18. diagnostic 〔形容詞〕診断の
  19. performance 〔名詞〕成績、出来栄え
  20. surpass 〔動詞〕上回る、しのぐ
  21. game changer★ 〔熟語〕変革をもたらすもの
  22. available 〔形容詞〕入手可能な
  23. can’t possoibly~★ 〔熟語〕とても~できない、まさか~できない
  24. keep up with~ 〔熟語〕~に遅れずについていく
  25. overlook 〔動詞〕見過ごす、見落とす
  26. consistent★ 〔形容詞〕一貫性のある
  27. inconsistency 〔名詞〕一貫性のなさ、矛盾
  28. experienced one 〔熟語〕熟練した人(ここでのoneはmedical professionalのこと)
  29. hungover▲ 〔形容詞〕二日酔いの
  30. upset 〔形容詞〕うろたえて(動詞upsetの過去分詞)
  31. sleep-deprived 〔形容詞〕睡眠不足の
  32. running cost 〔熟語〕ランニングコスト、維持費
  33. essentially 〔副詞〕実質的に
  34. unless~ 〔接続詞〕~でない限り
  35. be offered 〔熟語〕提供される、利用できる
  36. have access to~★ 〔熟語〕~を利用する権利を持つ、~を使える
  37. on call★ 〔熟語〕呼び出しに応じられる、(医者が)待機している
  38. massive 〔形容詞〕膨大な
  39. Altogether 〔副詞〕全部で、合計して
  40. clinician★ 〔名詞〕臨床医
  41. fine-tuning 〔名詞〕微調整
  42. in practice 〔熟語〕実際に
  43. physician★ 〔名詞〕内科医
  44. symptom 〔名詞〕症状
  45. related factor 〔熟語〕関係する要因
  46. identify 〔動詞〕特定する
  47. relevant 〔形容詞〕関連のある
  48. medication★ 〔名詞〕投薬、薬物
  49. current 〔形容詞〕現在の
  50. treatment 〔名詞〕治療、処置
  51. a handful of~ 〔熟語〕わずかな~
  52. so far 〔熟語〕これまでのところ
  53. high-profile▲ 〔形容詞〕人目をひくような
  54. leukemia▲ 〔名詞〕白血病
  55. insurer 〔名詞〕保険会社
  56. lung cancer 〔熟語〕肺がん
  57. catch up with~★ 〔熟語〕追いつく
  58. versatility 〔名詞〕多用途性、様々な能力を併せ持つこと
  59. agility 〔名詞〕迅速さ、スピード
  60. match 〔動詞〕匹敵する、同レベルに並ぶ
  61. get there 〔熟語〕そこへ到達する(この文では人間の診断医に並ぶこと)
  62. eventually 〔副詞〕結局、最終的には、ゆくゆくは

*2語以上のものはすべて[熟語]と表記しています。
*難度の高い単語には▲、重要な単語には★を付けています。

この回の問題へ

*誤字やリンク抜けや質問などは、コメント欄かryujutanakake@yahoo.co.jpまでお気軽に。

(Visited 409 times, 1 visits today)
Share this Post

Leave a Comment

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です

*
*

日本語が含まれない投稿は無視されますのでご注意ください。(スパム対策)