東大過去問 2016年 第1問(要約)

/ 2月 24, 2020/ 東大過去問, 第1問(要約), 過去問/ 1 comments



The notion of “imagined family” helps us to understand how group feelings can be extended beyond real family. Because humans evolved in small groups whose members were closely related, evolution favored a psychology designed to help out members of our close families. However, as human societies developed, cooperation between different groups became more important. By extending the language and sentiments of family to non-family, humans were able to create “imagined families” ― political and social communities able to undertake large-scale projects such as trade, self-government, and defense.
By itself, though, this concept still can’t explain why we consider all members of such a community to be equal. Imagined family differs from real family not only by the lack of genetic ties, but also by the lack of distinction between near and distant relatives. In general, all members of a brotherhood or motherland have equal status, at least in terms of group membership, whereas real family members have different degrees of relatedness and there is no fixed or firm way of defining family membership or boundaries. We need to search for a more fundamental factor that unites people and creates a strong bond among them.
At a deeper level, human communities are united by a well-known psychological bias which is believed to be universal. Studies of childhood development across cultures indicate that people everywhere tend to attribute certain essential qualities to human social categories such as race, ethnicity, or dress. This mental attitude has been used to generate notions of “in-group” versus “out-group,” and to give coherence to a group where initially there was none, dramatically enhancing the group’s chance of survival. However, this can also lead us to see an “out-group” as a different biological species, increasing the risk of hostility and conflict. Throughout history, and likely through human prehistory, people have routinely organized themselves to fight or dominate others by seeing them as belonging to a different species.









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  1. 人は皆、進化の過程で、仮想家族という実家族を拡張した概念である共同体に、自分の本質的な特性を帰属させることで、その構成員を団結させ、平等に扱ってきた。その反面、集団外の者を別の生物種としてみなし、闘争、支配した。(106字)

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