京大過去問 1994年 第1問(英文和訳)

/ 9月 3, 2020/ 英文和訳, 京大過去問, 難易度★/ 0 comments

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People often use a language to signal their membership of particular groups. (1)Social status, sex, age, and the kinds of social networks people belong to turn out to be  important dimensions of identity in many communities. I will illustrate the way people use language to signal such affiliations.
Telephone rings.
Pat: Hello.
Caller: Hello, is Mark there?
Pat: Yes. Just hold on a minute.
Pat (to Mark): There’s a rather well-educated young lady from Scotland on the phone for you.
When you answer the telephone, you can often make some pretty good guess about various characteristics of the speaker. Pat was able to deduce quite a lot about Mark’s caller, even though the caller had said nothing explicitly about herself. Most listeners can identify children’s voices without any problem. When the caller is an adult it is usually easy to tell whether a speaker is female or male. (2)If the person has a distinctive regional accent, then their regional origins will be evident even from a short utterance. And it may also be possible to make a reasonable guess about the person’s socioeconomic or educational background, as Pat did.
No two people speak exactly the same. There are infinite sources of variation in speech. A sound spectrograph, a machine which represents the sound waves of speech in visual form, shows that even a single vowel may be pronounced in hundreds of minutely different ways, most of which listeners do not even register. (3)Some features of speech, however, are shared by groups, and become important because they differentiate one group from another. Just as different languages often serve a unifying and separating function for their speakers, so do speech characteristics within languages. The pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary of Scottish speakers of English is in some respects quite distinct from that of people from England, for example. Though there is variation within Scotland, there are also some features which perform an overall unifying function. The letter r in words like girl and star is pronounced in a number of English-speaking areas, and Scotland is certainly one of them. And a Scot is far more likely to say I’ll not do it than I won’t do it.


他の人と全く同じ話し方をする人はいない。話し方のバリエーションの元となるものは無限にある。話し声の音波を視覚的に表現できる機械である音声分析機は、たった1つの母音でさえも微妙に異なる数百通りに発音されうることを示しているが、聞き手はその大部分に気が付くことすらない。(3)しかし話し方の特徴のいくつかは集団に共有されており、それが集団を互いに差異化するがゆえに重要なものとなっている。独自の言語がしばしばその話者達を統合したり分離させたりするのと同様に、同一言語内の話し方の特徴もそうした機能を持つ例えば、英語を話すスコットランド人の発音や文法や語彙は、いくつかの点でイングランド人のものと全く異なる。スコットランド内にも多様性はあるものの、全体として統合的な機能を果たすいくつかの特徴もある。girlstarのような語中のrの文字は、英語圏の多くの地域で発音されるが、スコットランドは確実にそうした地域の一つである。そしてスコットランド人はI won’t do itというより、I’ll not do itという傾向がはるかに強い。


  • quite (程度に段階のない語を修飾する場合)全く

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