センター本試験 ２０１２年度 第６問 単語
（１） A high school student has a science test on Monday but spends most of the weekend playing (1)video games and does not start studying until late Sunday night. This kind of (2)avoiding or (3)delaying of work that needs to be done is called (4)procrastination. It has been (5)estimated that (6)up to 95% of people procrastinate (7)at least sometimes, and about 20% of them do it too much. (8)Traditionally, people who procrastinate have been considered (9)lazy, but research tells us that this is not true. Learning about the (10)roots of procrastination can help us undestand why most people do it (11)to some extent and also help us (12)decrease our own procratination. (13)Although researchers do not (14)agree on all the reasons (15)behind procrastination, there is (16)general agreement about some (17)factors that can (18)explain it.
（２） The first factor is how (19)pleasant or unpleasant people find a task. Research shows that people will (20)put off tasks they find unpleasant. Many high school students may delay cleaning their rooms or doing their homework. However, many might not delay doing such tasks as (21)responding to a friend’s email. It is important remember that whether or not a task is pleasant (22)depends on the (23)individual. For example, someone who loves bicycles might not delay (24)fixing a (25)punctured tire while someone who does not may put it off.
（３） (26)In addition to how people feel about the job (27)at hand, the (28)amount of (29)confidence they have in their (30)ability to do a task is also (31)related to procrastination. (32)For instance, (33)those who have low (34)expectations of success are more (35)likely to (36)postpone starting a (37)particular job. (38)Conversely, those who believe that they can (39)perform well are more likely to (40)take on (41)challenging tasks (42)rather than avoid them. It should be (43)noted, though, that some (44)counselors (45)argue that too much confidence can also (46)lead to procrastination: some people (47)overestimate how easily they can do a (48)particular task and start too late.
（４） Another factor is whether or not people can (49)exercise (50)self-control. Those who have less self-control can easily (51)be drawn away from their work. Accepting an (52)invitation to sing karaoke on a night when you planned to start working on a (53)presentation could be one (54)example. Self-control, or the ability to (55)resist (56)temptation and (57)stick to a plan, is something many of us (58)struggle with. (59)Interestingly, (60)age is said to (61)be associated with self-control. Research shows that the older people become, the less likely they are to delay doing their work until (62)the last minute.
（５） (63)Lastly, there is a (64)link between procrastination and how long people must wait before they see the (65)reward for an (66)effort. For instance, studying hard in school might not give high school students any (67)immediate rewards; what they learn might not seem (68)useful to the present. However, studying can (69)provide them with rewards in the future like the knowledge or skills necessary to (70)pursue their dreams. Sometimes, it is hard to see the (71)benefit of making an effort when the reward is too (72)far away. This can explain why many people do not start (73)saving money for their old age when they are young.
（６） What are the roots of your procrastination? Because the (74)behaviors described here seem common to most people, you do not need to (75)completely change your (76)habits if you only procrastinate (77)once in a while. (78)On the other hand, if you feel that your procrastination is a problem, the first step to (79)reducing it is (80)identifying the reasons behind it. (81)Self-help books and websites give (82)numerous techniques for (83)overcoming procrastination, but it is only by understanding the roots of the problem that you can choose the (84)appropriate (85)method for yourself.
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