東大過去問 2018年 第1問(要約)

/ 2月 24, 2020/ 東大過去問, 第1問(要約), 過去問/ 2 comments



Rumours spread by two different but overlapping processes: popular confirmation and in-group momentum. The first occurs because each of us tends to rely on what others think and do. Once a certain number of people appear to believe a rumour, others will believe it too, unless they have good reason to think it is false. Most rumours involve topics on which people lack direct or personal knowledge, and so most of us often simply trust the crowd. As more people accept the crowd view, the crowd grows larger, creating a real risk that large groups of people will believe rumours even though they are completely false.
In-group momentum refers to the fact that when like-minded people get together, they often end up believing a more extreme version of what they thought before. Suppose that members of a certain group are inclined to accept a rumour about, say, the evil intentions of a certain nation. In all likelihood, they will become more committed to that rumour after they have spoken to each other. Indeed, they may move from being tentative believers to being absolutely certain, even though their only new evidence is what other members of the group believe. Consider the role of the internet here: when people see many tweets or posts from like-minded people, they are strongly inclined to accept a rumour as true.
What can be done to reduce the risk that these two processes will lead us to accept false rumours? The most obvious answer, and the standard one, involves the system of free expression: people should be exposed to balanced information and to corrections from those who know the truth. Freedom usually works, but in some contexts it is an incomplete remedy. People do not process information in a neutral way, and emotions often get in the way of truth. People take in new information in a very uneven way, and those who have accepted false rumours do not easily give up their beliefs, especially when there are strong emotional commitments involved. It can be extremely hard to change what people think, even by presenting them with facts.








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  1. 人は他人の言葉に容易に左右され、似た考えの人が集まると極端な話でも信じ込むので、誤った噂が広まる。これを正すには表現の自由が必要だが、それでも十分とは限らない。(80字)

  2. うわさは、大勢が信じていたり、似た者同士が集まると拡散する。うわさにだまされない為には、種種の意見に触れる事が重要だが、一端、信じると考えを改めるのは難しい。(79字)

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