京大過去問 2001年 第2問(英文和訳)

/ 10月 25, 2020/ 英文和訳, 京大過去問, 難易度★★/ 0 comments

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There are various ways of accounting for dreams. Some claim that they are mysterious experiences in which the soul travels out of the body. Others assert that they are the reflections of hidden desires or socially unacceptable urges. Still others are inclined to think that they do not conceal any deep significance.
Some dreams are little more than traces of recent experiences. If, for instance, we spend the day driving across the country, it would not be unusual to dream about driving down a highway. While such dreams are reasonably straightforward, many others appear disconnected and nonsensical. The fact that most dreams have a surrealistic quality — a quality that causes them to be highly resistant to interpretation — has influenced many people to dismiss dreams as altogether meaningless.
According to one scientific theory, here roughly sketched, dreams are the result of the forebrain’s attempts to understand the random electrical signals that are generated by the hindbrain during sleep. (1)In normal waking consciousness, the forebrain sorts through various kinds of internal and external sensory data to construct a meaningful view of the world. Faced with a flood of disconnected, random inputs generated by more primitive areas of the brain during sleep, the higher mental centers attempt to impose order on the incoming signals, creating whatever narrative structure dreams have. Many dreams that are just clusters of incoherent images represent incoming groups of signals that the forebrain was simply not able to synthesize.
Not all dreams are, however, utterly senseless. Take, for example, those we have all seen at one time or another in which we are falling, flying, or appearing naked in public. Dreams of this kind most likely have their bases in experiences and anxieties shared by all human beings.
Falling is a good example of a shared dream motif. Psychologists speculate that falling dreams are rooted in our early experiences as toddlers taking our first steps. (2)If this hypothesis is correct, then childhood experiences must have left deep imprints in the brain that are somehow activated in adult life during periods of high anxiety. Some sociobiologists have further speculated that the fear of falling ultimately derives from an inherited instinct or reflex handed down by our prehistoric ancestors, who could fall out of trees during their sleep.
Where all dreams come from is still uncertain, but one can hope for the day when an explanation of their origins is no longer a dream.




  • still → (動の前で, または文頭で接続詞的に)それでも, それにもかかわらず
  • little more than~ → ほとんど〜同様である
  • across the country → 国中(across country は(都市や主要道路を避け)田野を通って)
  • nonsensical → 道理に適っていない
  • dismiss →(問題を)取り上げない、退ける
  • forebrain → 前脳
  • hindbrain → 後脳
  • sensory → 知覚の、五感の
  • narrative → 物語形式の
  • cluster → 集合、房
  • incoherent → 首尾一貫しない、支離滅裂な
  • simply not able to → どうしても〜できない
  • inprint → 痕跡
  • sociobiologist → 社会生物学者
  • inherited → 遺伝によって受け継いだ


  • 内容的には夢についてよく言われていることで難しくない。こうした話を全く聞いたことがなければ難しく感じるかもしれない。いずれにしても、一つ前の文を詳しく言い換えているだけなので、前文をしっかり理解している必要がある。つまり原始的な後脳の発したランダムな電気信号を、進化し精神と呼べるレベルに達した前脳が、無理やりストーリー形式に仕立て上げる、という内容。
  • 下線部(1)について。第一文。sensory,forebrainを見た事がないかもしれないが、予測できるレベル。第二文。構造が少し見にくいが、Faced~sleepが分詞句、the higher mental center以降が主節。the higher mental centerは前脳。more primitive areas of the brainが後脳。impose order『順序を与える』→『並べ替える』。narrative structure『物語的構造』。creating以降は『〜するために』でも良いが、直前にカンマもあるので、前からand create〜ととらえて訳した方がよい。
  • 下線部(2)について。第一文。mustは『違いない』mustの後ろが完了形になっているのは、後半のare somehow activatedよりも時間的に前になる内容であるから。that以降はimprintsを先行詞とする関係代名詞節。imprintsを修飾するように訳してもよいが、当サイトの解答は、分かりやすさと時間的な順序を優先して、前から訳した。第二文。長いが比較的平易。an inheritedはinstinctとreflexの両方にかかっている。

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