京大過去問 1998年 第2問(英文和訳)

/ 10月 1, 2020/ 英文和訳, 京大過去問, 難易度★★★★/ 0 comments

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The word “patina” refers to the surface color and finish build up by age, wear and polishing. On wooden furniture, a patina shows depth and grain and indicates that the piece has aged. Indeed, this mellowed color is one of the things about antique furniture that collectors love most. Like the laugh lines on the face of a beloved grandparent, they are the signs that it has “lived”.
Patina is also an important indicator of fake antiques. All woods and wood finishes discolor over time due to use, oxidation*, the care (or lack of it) the piece has received at the hands of former owners and exposure to heat and cold, sunlight and humidity. However, false patina are produced with a variety of weapons that range from chemicals to smoke.
(1)If the patina of the entire piece is a uniform color, be wary! The finish should be uneven, worn wherever it would have been rubbed by hands, backs of knees, shoulders and dust rags as a part of normal use and care. It should be darker where rags and hands couldn’t reach or where the wood was protected from the elements. Check the back or underside of the piece in question, which would have been left in its natural state — neither stained nor varnished — when it was made. Over time, this untreated, unfinished wood will have oxidized. Its surface will be dark, but if you scratch it gently with a fingernail, you’ll see the wood is appreciably lighter underneath. If the dark color penetrates below the surface, this may indicate that the wood has been stained or treated with chemicals. (Never, never attempt to do this “scratch test” anywhere it will show!)
(2)Since all of their individual components are genuinely old, truly “married” antiques usually show the expected pattern of fading produced by many years of use. But, if you have a cupboard, for instance, with a top and bottom that started life on different pieces of furniture, the color of the patina on each section will be somewhat different. There will also be gaps where the old joining and the new ones do not match.
One last word about patina: If the piece you are looking at has a carbony, woodsmoke smell, or you can pick up carbon dust in cracks and crevices with a clean tissue, it probably got its patina in a smokehouse. Pass it by.
*oxidation: 酸化




  • patina 緑青、(古い木の)つや
  • wear 摩耗
  • grain 木目
  • mellow 柔らかく温かみのある、円熟した
  • dust rag 雑巾
  • element 自然力
  • in question 問題・話題になっている、当該の
  • stain 着色する
  • varnish ニスを塗る
  • appreciably はっきりと分かるほどに
  • component 部品
  • carbony 炭のような


  • (1)(2)ともにpatinaとmarriedをどう処理するか、問題文で指示が欲しい所。東大であれば指示があるはずで、京大らしいとも言える。
  • (1) 下線の冒頭にpatinaという単語が出ており、下線部より前の2つの段落において、patinaの意味が丁寧に説明されているという形から、patinaが何かを解釈して自分なりの訳語を付けるのが望ましい。『古色、古つや』でも良いし、もう少し説明的に『経年変化で生じる木の表面の色』などでも良い。第2文は、wornの過去分詞をいかに訳すか、whereverやasで始まる節や句をどう整理するかがポイント。第3文のelementsとは、第2段落の熱さ・寒さ・日光・湿度に対応している。
  • (2) marriedをどう訳すかがポイント。ダブルクォーテーションが付いているということは、『この文だけの意味』が、この語に付与されていることを表している。『婚姻関係にある』とカッコ付きでそのまま訳すのも間違いではないが、この語の解釈を求められていると考えるのが普通。第2文の内容から、marriedの意味は、『各部品が組み替えられたり、追加されたりせず、製作当初のまま』という意味だと読める。

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